Associate Professor University of Exeter, United Kingdom Department of Archaeology

Research Associate National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian

Research Associate Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh

Research Associate University of Texas

Adjunct Professor,
Augustana College, Sioux Falls


Our long-awaited book for the University of California Press is in production.  We have made numerous presentations in public and academic venues throughout North America, South America, Western Europe and even polar Siberia.  Dennis and I published a summary of the theory in World Archaeology in December 2004.  This was followed 1n 2005 in World Archaeology by a rebuttal by Straus, Meltzer and Goebel.  Then in 2006 in World Archaeology Dennis and I published our response.  Unfortunately, I am not at liberty to make these available on this web page as they are in copyright.

The "Clovis First" and "Beringia Only" theories have been crumbling for years, but for many of us are now totally collapsed.  There is now overwhelming direct evidence for pre-Clovis occupation of the American continents, and virtually no direct evidence that the progenitors of Clovis came from Siberia.  We contend that the evidence overwhelmingly indicates southwestern Europe, specifically the Ice Age Solutrean Culture of France and Spain, as the source of the people that developed into Clovis.


Argentina and Patagonia

In November 2010 I gave two presentations at the V Simposio Internacional "El hombre temprano en America" at La Plata University, Argentina.  I have known colleagues in Argentina for decades but this was the first time I had been able to go there to see collections, visit sites, give presentations and knapping demonstrations and work with students.  I had a very busy 2+ week trip and really enjoyed myself (in spite of having my pocket picked, learned a lot and even found several ‘Cola de Pescado’ points at the Dos Amigos site in PatagoniaCheck this out for a short blurb.


In June I spent a week in Sao Paulo State, Brasil hosted by Dr. Astolfo Araujo. I gave a presentation at a conference in Rio Claro and went on a couple of field trips (even found some nice black chert). I also gave a knapping demonstration in Rio Claro and conducted a knapping workshop in Sao Paulo. I see many future opportunities to become involved in teaching and research there (not permanent). An outcome of both trips is there is a lot to learn about the peopling of the Americas in South America, and I hope to be part of it.

New Research Project Underway

Learning To Be Human is a Leverhulme Trust funded research project that is designed to investigate the relationship between developing flintknapping skill, cognition and language in hominids.  Students are being trained in knapping and their developing skills are being tracked over a period of 30 months.  Six have undergone fMRI brain scans before any knapping and will have additional scans in November and again after the training has finished in September 2012.  The goal is not to try and simulate ancient learning but to have the learners get as good at knapping as they can while we monitor skill acquisition and changes in brain activity.  I am the Principal investigator with Co-investigators Dietrich Stout (Emory University, Atlanta) and James Steele (University College London). There are two PhD students in the project; Nada Khreisheh who is monitoring knapping learning (Exeter) and Stuart Page who is undertaking transmission chain experiments (University College London). We are also working with colleagues at Imperial College London (Dr. Aldo Faisal) on knapping gestures and Thierry Chaminade (Univeristy of Marsaille) who is collaborating with Dietz on the fMRI scans.

The knapping core group of 8 students, Nada, a project assistant and another of my PhD students spent the month of April at the Gault Site in central Texas. This was made possible through the project grant (Leverhulme Trust) and sponsorship of several long-time supporters of my research through the Gault School of Archaeological Research. We spent the month working in the excavation and lab as well as knapping. Everybody greatly increased their abilities and we produced an amazing pile of ‘debitage’. We will spend 2 weeks in Moesgaard, Denmark in September 2011 studying Neolithic artifacts and focusing on biface and square axe technologies. This should really expand all our knapping horizons. Another intensive training session is planned for next spring in Les Eyzies, France where we will study Upper Palaeolithic technologies, focusing on Solutrean biface thinning and general UP blade technologies.


I have also been involved in a related project, Directed by Dr. Aldo Faisal, Imperial College, London that used a sensory glove to track hand movement during knapping.  Check out the University of Exeter and the recently published article. He has a lot more ideas as to how he can wire me up during knapping (including a spandex sensory suit- we’ll see about that one).


If all of this isn’t enough, as part of my role as internationalization office for the Department of Archaeology, I organized and presented a three-day workshop on Experimental Archaeology at the National Institute of Advanced Studies (NIAS) in Bangalore, India in February 2011. This was funded by UK British Council grant (UKIERI), NIAS and the University of Exeter International Office. The workshop was attended by academics in NIAS, the Indian Institute of Science and other academic invitees from around India and Exeter. Not all of these were archaeologists but included an astrophysicist, cognitive scientists, metallurgists, etc. Since then, the University has opened an office in Bangalore and has developed wide ranging relationships with several institutions there. I also had the opportunity to visit Madras with a former student in our Experimental Archaeology MA programme, Smriti Haricharan. She took me to some of the amazing Iron Age megalithic tomb sites she has been studying and attempting to save from encroaching development. I also enjoyed the generous hospitality of her family. While I do not intend to develop any archaeological research in India, I will be continuing a relationship with NIAS (there are several grant proposals submitted at the moment).


Finally, In July I spent a really nice week in Northern Finland (Oulu) at an Outdoor Archaeology Centre (Kierikki). This visit was sponsored by GRAMPUS, and funded by the EU Leonardo da Vinci Training Programme. I was accompanied by three UK archaeologists, including Dr. Linda Hurcombe (Exeter). For me this was a bit of a busman’s holiday and when not being shown around the area (including a visit above the Arctic Circle), I spent much of my time in the Stone Age village helping out with knapping demonstrations etc.




PrShown November 16, 2010 on PBS

Program Description

"Dated to the late Stone Age, Stonehenge may be the best-known and most mysterious relic of prehistory. Every year, a million visitors are drawn to England to gaze upon the famous circle of stones, but the monument's meaning has continued to elude us. Now investigations inside and around Stonehenge have kicked off a dramatic new era of discovery and debate over who built Stonehenge and for what purpose. How did prehistoric people quarry, transport, sculpt, and erect these giant stones? Granted exclusive access to the dig site at Bluestonehenge, a prehistoric stone-circle monument recently discovered about a mile from Stonehenge, NOVA cameras join a new generation of researchers finding important clues to this enduring mystery".  Twelve of my Experimental Archaeology students at Exeter and I participated in this documentary.  NOVA sponsored a large scale experiment testing a revolutionary (pun intended) concept of how the large monument stones may have been moved.  I haven't seen the documentary so I don't know how prominently the experiment features.  Check it out: Watch streaming video   (in North America- this doesn't work in Europe) and Articles: University of Exeter  and The Independent newspaper

Co-Principal Investigator, Gault Project

I am honored to have been appointed Co-principal Investigator, with Dr. Michael Collins, of the Gault Site Project, the Gault School of Archaeological Research and Texas State University, San Marcos


This is a photo of Mike Collins and me at the Gault Project house near Florence, Texas


I am now Associate Professor in the Department of Archaeology at the University of Exeter  I am teaching various courses including lithic technology and analysis, archaeological materials and have been appointed Director of the Experimental Archaeology Masters Programme . It is unique and extremely well designed.  It is a one-year (11 1/2 months) Masters in Experimental Archaeology.   Although students have a set number of courses, labs, etc., there is ample opportunity to explore their own interests.  For more information check out the department web page.


Recent Publications

I am co-author of the book Clovis Technology with Mike Collins and Andy Hemmings.  scanned page samples (pdf):   Table of Contents 1; Table of Contents 2; Table of Contents 3; Figure 2.27; Page 71; Plate 1; Index

I also have contributions in two other recent books dealing with Paleoindian materials; Hell Gap and the 3rd edition of Prehistoric Hunters.

                                                                                 Click on images to go to pages                                                                                        To download see below                      To download see below

Document downloads:

Le Solutréen en France     Philip E. L. Smith 1966, Delmas, Bordeaux (in French) pdf    details

 A Reevaluation of the French Solutrean    Philip E. L. Smith 1962    dissertation, Harvard  pdf     details

         Front matter and Chapter 1, Chapter 2, Chapter 3, Chapter 4, Chapter 5, Chapter 6, Chapter 7, Chapter 8, Chapter 9,

         Chapter 10, Chapter 11 and Appendices 

Report of Archaeological Research conducted at Six and Leaves Pueblo (5MT11555) Montezuma County, Colorado  pdf  details

(New indexed version 12 August 2011)

Excavations at Wallace Ruin (5MT6970) Montezuma County, Colorado 1998-2010   pdf  details

Projectile Points and Specialized Bifaces from the Horner Site  1987 pdf  details

Appendix 2.


 The Claypool Study  1987 pdf details

■ A Durable Legacy 2006 pdf  details

FLINTKNAPPING by Dr. Bruce Bradley

I am not handling sales of  tapes or DVDs . However, you can order them from or call 800-687-5967


"I watched your video with a couple friends this week. I haven't seen it for a long time and when I first watched it several years ago it seemed like magic. I've done a couple of demos lately and have tried to figure out ways to keep them more interesting during the relatively long thinning and shaping stage without switching midway through to a prepared piece. That's what really struck me about your demo -- when you are ready to start making the point you are already halfway there and the audience was kept interested all the way along. AND they learn the difference between uniface/biface and cutting/scraping without even switching tools. Amazing to watch. I have lots to learn." Tim Rast

This video is a great addition to any flintknapping library and is being shown in many beginning archaeology courses in universities and colleges throughout North and South America (and some in Europe). It has also been well received in primary and secondary classrooms. Flintknapping has also been acclaimed by beginning and intermediate knappers as a great instructional tool. The dvd is 45 minutes long and works well with a 1 hour class. The dvd is indexed with chapters so it is easier to view specific areas of interest. The Clovis and Solutrean dvds are more specialized and demonstrate the production of bifaces in these two cultures. There are also bonus features. The Solutrean is a two disk set.

Experimental Archaeology

If experimental archaeology is your interest there are many different internet resources, in North America and around the world. To get started just Google experimental archaeology.


I continue to keep my hand in knapping and through my teaching (especially in the Learning To Be Human Project), knapping for experiments and doing demonstrations I mange not to get too rusty.  Also, this spring I spent a week with Bill Woodcock knapping almost continuously on things he wanted made.  He supplies the rock, travel, room and board (and entertainment) and although grueling, I really get retuned.  I also managed to do a lot of knapping at the Gault dig in April.  Mike Dothager came down from Illinois and spent a few days showing and teaching his rocker punch technique to the Project group. It really is an amazing method and he makes a good case for its ancient use based on archaeological finds.   He has some nice sequences posted on YouTube.

Other Southwestern Archaeology

Stix and Leaves Pueblo (5MT11555) in Montezuma County, Colorado is an Early Pueblo II Village that I excavated and researched for off and on for 7 years. There is now a final excavation report (available above).  You can also view separately the results of tree-ring dating for all of the excavations and check out the two articles on projectile points.  The first is in Indian Artifact Magazine, Vol. 20, No. 1, and view images of projectile points from two Anasazi sites in southwestern Colorado.

ANASAZI  PROJECTILE POINTS: Color images and text of Chips article Vol. 13, #1 2001

Southwest projectile point research in Pueblo archaeology in the Four Corners area in the 1970s involved me in the great Chaco debate, and I have been there ever since. Wallace Ruin, a Chaco Outlier near Cortez, Colorado. Wallace Ruin Summary Report, REPORT ON EXCAVATIONS 1998-2010 (see above).

Along with archaeology, I have also done many experimental projects including a replica kiva construction. Check out the many images of the complete process including its natural collapse after abandonment in 2003. One outcome of the experimental kiva is that there are some amazing, accidental, solar alignments. Check them out! These should serve as cautionary tales for budding archaeo-astronomers who see "significant" alignments everywhere. There have also been some surprises relating to post-abandonment decay, collapse and filling.


Sloan Dalton Check out good photos of the points, awls, burins, and scrapers (made on points) from the Sloan Site, a Dalton Cemetary in NE Arkansas. These images are posted here to supplement the poor illustrations in the otherwise excellent book by Dan Morse (Sloan a Paleoindian Dalton Cemetary in Arkansas, 1997, Smithsonian Institution Press, ISBN 1-56098-712-X). Sloan Dalton Artifacts Plates 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17

Other Archaeology:

Clovis Ivory and Bone Tools

Polish Flint Mining

Russian Upper Palaeolithic

Eastern Gravettian Conference Zaraisk 1997

Streletskayan- early bifacial thinning technology

Les Maitreaux Solutrean

Zhokhov Polar Siberia

Kazakhstan Archaeology

Zhusahn a Neolithic camp

Zhartas a Neolithic/Eneolithic stone quarry

At the suggestion of a camper at Price camp I recommend you check out this page on Outdoor Survival tips

Pike Fishing in northern Manitoba


Last Updated August 12, 2011

Web Page by Bruce Bradley, PhD (primtech[at]